Nanotechnology Module  
VA Science Standards  Activities  VA Math Standards  Activities 
Grades 912  Designs  Grades 912  Designs 
Biology  Algebra I  
BIO.1 b: Hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature.  A1: solve multistep linear equations and inequalities in one variable, solve literal equations (formulas) for a given variable, and apply these skills to solve practical problems. Graphing calculators will be used to confirm algebraic solutions.  
BIO.1 c: variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;  A2: represent verbal quantitative situations algebraically and evaluate these expressions for given replacement values of the variables. Students will choose an appropriate computational technique, such as mental mathematics, calculator, or paper and pencil.  
BIO.1 i:: appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results;  A5: create and use tabular, symbolic, graphical, verbal, and physical representations to analyze a given set of data for the existence of a pattern, determine the domain and range of relations, and identify the relations that are functions.  
BIO.1 l: alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and  A6: select, justify, and apply an appropriate technique to graph linear functions and linear inequalities in two variables. Techniques will include slopeintercept, x and yintercepts, graphing by transformation, and the use of the graphing calculator.  
Chemistry  A7: determine the slope of a line when given an equation of the line, the graph of the line, or two points on the line. Slope will be described as rate of change and will be positive, negative, zero, or undefined. The graphing calculator will be used to investigate the effect of changes in the slope on the graph of the line.  
CH.2 c: mass and charge characteristics of subatomic particles;  Algebra and Functions  
CH.2 g: electron configurations, valence electrons, and oxidation numbers;  AFDA.1 b: investigate and analyze function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) families and their characteristics  local and absolute maxima and minima  
CH.2 i: historical and quantum models.  AFDA.1 d: investigate and analyze function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) families and their characteristics  zeros  
CH.3 d: bonding types (ionic and covalent);  AFDA.1 e: investigate and analyze function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) families and their characteristics  intercepts  
CH.3 e: reaction types (synthesis, decomposition, single and double replacement, oxidationreduction, neutralization, exothermic, and endothermic); and  AFDA.1 f: investigate and analyze function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) families and their characteristics  intervals in which the function is increasing / decreasing  
CH.3 f: reaction rates and kinetics (activation energy, catalysis, and degree of randomness).  AFDA.1 h: investigate and analyze function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) families and their characteristics   
Earth Science  AFDA.2: use knowledge of transformations to write an equation given the graph of a function (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic).  
ES.1 c: scales, diagrams, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and profiles are constructed and interpreted; 
 AFDA.3: collect data and generate an equation for the curve (linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic) of best fit to model realworld problems or applications. Students will use the best fit equation to interpolate function values, make decisions, and justify conclusions with algebraic and/or graphical models.  
ES.11 c: systems interactions (density differences, energy transfer, weather, and climate);  Algebra II 
 
ES.2 b: recognizing that evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations;  AII.1: identify field properties, axioms of equality and inequality, and properties of order that are valid for the set of real numbers and its subsets, complex numbers, and matrices.  
ES.2 c: comparing different scientific explanations for a set of observations about the Earth;  AII. 8: recognize multiple representations of functions (linear, quadratic, absolute value, step, and exponential functions) and convert between a graph, a table, and symbolic form. A transformational approach to graphing will be employed through the use of graphing calculators.  
ES.2 d: explaining that observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion; and  AII.11: use matrix multiplication to solve practical problems. Graphing calculators or computer programs with matrix capabilities will be used to find the product.  
ES.3 c: direction and measurements of distance on any map or globe; and  AII.19: collect and analyze data to make predictions and solve practical problems. Graphing calculators will be used to investigate scatterplots and to determine the equation for a curve of best fit. Models will include linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic functions.  
Life Science 
 Geometry 

LS.1 d: models are constructed to illustrate and explain phenomena;  G.1 d: construct and judge the validity of a logical argument consisting of a set of premises and a conclusion  d) using deductive reasoning, including the law of syllogism  
LS.1 g: variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;  G.2 b: use pictorial representations, including computer software, constructions, and coordinate methods, to solve problems involving symmetry and transformation  b) investigating symmetry and determining whether a figure is symmetric with respect to a line or a point  
LS.1 h: continuous line graphs are constructed, interpreted, and used to make predictions;  G.5 b: prove two triangles are congruent or similar, given information in the form of a figure or statement, using algebraic and coordinate as well as deductive proofs.  
LS.1 i: interpretations from a set of data are evaluated and defended; and  G.12: make a model of a threedimensional figure from a twodimensional drawing and make a twodimensional representation of a threedimensional object. Models and representations will include scale drawings, perspective drawings, blueprints, or computer simulations.  
LS.12 e: environmental issues (water supply, air quality, energy production, and waste management).  G.13: use formulas for surface area and volume of threedimensional objects to solve practical problems. Calculators will be used to find decimal approximations for results.  
Physics 
 
PH.1 b: instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements of mass, volume, temperature, heat exchange, energy transformations, motion, fields, and electric charge;  
PH.3 d: examination of how new discoveries result in modification of existing theories or establishment of new paradigms; and  
PH.5 d: Newton’s laws of motion;  
PH.5 e: gravitation;  
PH.14 c: matter/energy equivalence;  
Physical Science 
 
PS.2 a: the particle theory of matter  
PS.2 c: solids, liquids, and gases  
PS.2 f: chemical properties (acidity, basicity, combustibility, reactivity).  
PS.4 b: classification of elements as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals; and  
PS.4 c: simple compounds (formulas and the nature of bonding).  
PS.5 c: chemical changes (types of reactions, reactants, and products; and balanced equations).  
PS.6 a: potential and kinetic energy;  
PS.8 a: wavelength, frequency, speed, and amplitude;  
PS.8 c: the nature of mechanical waves; and  
PS.9 a: the wave behavior of light (reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference);  
PS.9 c: the electromagnetic spectrum.  
PS.11 b: magnetic fields and electromagnets 